The correct answer to this open question is the following.
After 1863, what most fulfilled the "new birth of freedom" that the excerpt refers to was the ratification of the following amendments to the United States Constitution: the 13th the 14th, and the 15th.
After so many conflicts, the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution officially abolished slavery in the United States in January 1865. Then,
the 14th Amendment was very important because for the forts time it granted citizenship to former African American slaves, as well as equal rights and freedom. Finally, the 15th Amendment was another important step in the conformation of one society in the US, when black men got the right to vote.
When talking about money exchange, it refers to the exchange of money that is made for a service provided. In the past, this transfer was called barter, which was when a person had a product and was looking for another person who was interested in a said product to swap depending on what he wanted for making the exchange.
Now it is not necessary to look for a person who is willing to make a barter, if not that money is used to make the exchange of what is wanted, in this way the process is facilitated and no time is lost in the search.
Example of money exchange:
Paula goes to the supermarket because she needs eggs for breakfast, <em>she pays the supermarket manager three dollars for the eggs she needs.</em>
The civilization of the Indus Valley had a well developed measurement system, using weights and measurement scales. The smallest scale from the Bronze Age period was found in the region; made in ivory, it was marked with a division of 1.704 milimiters. They used decimal units for measuring weights also. And although the exact measurements for a weight unit (generally 28 grams) varied from region to region, the scale of 5:2:1 was followed when measuring amounts of said units.