The researcher performed a follow-up experiment to measure the rate of oxygen consumption by muscle and brain cells. Predict the
effect of the MT - ND5 mutation on the rate of oxygen consumption in muscle and brain cells. Justify your prediction. The researcher had hypothesized that the addition of the vitamin that is similar in structure to NADH would increase the activity of the mutated NADH dehydrogenase enzyme in individuals with the disorder. Explain how the vitamin most likely increased the activity of the enzyme.
Mitochondria are abundantly present in mammalian cells. Their fraction varies from tissue to tissue, ranging from <1% (volume) in white blood cells to 35% in heart muscle cells. However, mitochondria should not be thought of as single entities, but rather a dynamic network that continuously undergoes fission and fusion processes. In skeletal muscle, mitochondria exist as a reticular membrane network. The subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria are located in distinct subcellular regions, and they possess subtle differences in biochemical and functional properties that are characterized by their anatomical locations. SS mitochondria lie directly beneath the sarcolemmal membrane and the IMF mitochondria are located in close contact with the myofibril. Their different properties are likely to influence their capacity for adaptation. SS mitochondria account for 10-15% of the mitochondrial volume and this population has been shown to be more susceptible to adaptation than the IMF mitochondria. However, the IMF mitochondria were found to have higher rates of protein synthesises, enzyme activities and respiration (1).
The rate of oxygen consumption by muscle and brain cells will decrease. The MT-ND5 mutation causes a buildup of lactic acid which occurs as a result of glycolysis not entering the Krebs cycle and instead entering fermentation. Because it is not entering the krebs cycle, there is no oxygen being consumed.
A) In aldehydes, the carbon is always joined to at least one hydrogen atom.
Aldehydes and Ketones are organic compounds.
The main difference between them is that aldehydes have the carbon atom attached to at least one hydrogen atom.
In ketones, the carbon is attached to another carbon.
The IUPAC names of alkanals usually end with -e
For alkanones usually end with -one
To reiterate, the striking difference between the two families is that in alkanals, a hydrogen atom is directly attached to the carbonyl group while in alkanones, no hydrogen atoms is attached to the carbonyl group but two bulky alkyl groups.