The correct answer is letter "C": negative externalities.
Corrective taxes are levies imposed by the central government to companies generating negative externalities. The levies are intended to reduce the production of the firms causing the externality, thus, decreasing their impact. Another form of downsizing externalities is through command-and-control regulations that impose production standards and regulate firms' processes.
Since the question is about the domestic demand and the demand of the citizens who are living in the country, the demand of the people who are living in the United States of America should not affect the domestic demand of Indian citizens.
The demand of every good and service is affected by some factors which increase or decrease the demand of these goods and the services. But the demand of the international consumers or customers will not affect the demand of the national goods and services.
The correct answer is letter "B": Positive reinforcement and punishment.
In the Operant Conditioning Method proposed by B.F. Skinner (1904-1990), positive reinforcement refers to the set of actions individuals do to increase the behavior of other individuals. On the other hand, positive punishment aims to decrease behaviors in individuals by prompting undesirable stimuli.
Thus, <em>Jim is implementing positive reinforcement through incentives for workers meeting certain corporate goals and positive punishment by withholding those incentives from employees who get late, take long breaks or act unprofessionally</em>.