The 'Battle' of Cajamarca was the unexpected ambush and seizure of the Inca ruler Atahualpa by a small Spanish force led by Francisco Pizarro, on November 16, 1532. The Spanish killed thousands of Atahualpa's counsellors, commanders and unarmed attendants in the great plaza of Cajamarca, and caused his armed host outside the town to flee. The capture of Atahualpa marked the opening stage of the conquest of the pre-Columbian Inca civilization of Peru.
In 1519 the conquistador Hernan Cortes advanced deep into the kingdom of Montezuma in an attempt to seize his treasures. He tried to stop Hernan Cortes' attack on his country and sent messengers to Cortes and begged him to return to Spain, offering him valuable gifts of gold and colorful feathers. But the gifts increased Cortes' curiosity and greed, so he proceeded to force many Indians to join his army. Montezuma respectfully waited for Cortes and his army outside the city.
In the face of Cortes' attack, Montezuma did not dare to do anything to drive out the invaders. Because according to an ancient legend, the natives believed that sons of the Sun, white gods from the East, would come to occupy the country. The Spaniards invaded the temple during a ceremony and killed the entire Mexican aristocracy. Cortes forced Montezuma to persuade his former nationals to surrender. But the people ignored him. It is claimed that he was stoned by the natives. A horrible bloodshed ensued in which Cortes proved his courage, as it is a real miracle how he managed to escape from the insurgent city, cross the entire enemy country and reach the shore again. Of course he soon returned with new troops and destroyed the prosperous city. Montezuma, according to others, died of starvation because he refused to eat because of Cortes's insult. There is a newer view that he was assassinated by the Spanish conquerors.
<span>Efforts at industrialization in Russia and japan were similar in that in both of these areas there was a quick and dramatic shift away from agriultural development--often at the forced hand of the government. </span>