DNA is made up of molecules called nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a phosphate group, a sugar group and a nitrogen base. The four types of nitrogen bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). The order of these bases is what determines DNA's instructions, or genetic code. Similar to the way the order of letters in the alphabet can be used to form a word, the order of nitrogen bases in a DNA sequence forms genes, which in the language of the cell, tells cells how to make proteins. Another type of nucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, or RNA, translates genetic information from DNA into proteins.
WEAR A LAB COAT TO PROTECT YOUR CLOTHES AGAINST THESE CHEMICALS, AND SAFETY GLASSES TO PROTECT EYES, UNLESS YOU ARE A SPECTACLE WEARER. (EXCEPT WET GLASSWARE, AND EMPTY CHEMICAL BOTTLES!). BE ESPECIALLY CAREFUL WITH HOT LIQUIDS AND WATERBATHS. KEEP CHEMICAL BOTTLES OFF THE BENCH, AND DO NOT CONTAMINATE PIPETTES
a buffer is an ionic compound that resists change in ph hence no ph change on addition of an acid proves the presence of a buffer which is different when distilled water is added because it is neutral hence no increase or decrease in ph
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is all of the material within a cell, enclosed by the cell membrane, except for the cell nucleus. The material inside the nucleus and contained within the nuclear membrane is termed the nucleoplasm. It’s a clear, thick, jelly-like material and organelles found inside cell membrane. It supports /protects cell organelles An inner layer of the prokaryotic cells that is rich in protein with gel-like consistency; it houses organelles. In eukaryotic cells, it contains the cell contents and the organelles and is gel-like.