**Answer:**

The output expected in 2016 is 1.6488 x 10 ^9 or 1.6488 billion

**Step-by-step explanation:**

The output is decreased by 8.4% from 2006 to 2016.

Amount of output in 2006 = 1.8 billion dollars

Decrease in output = 8.4%

We need to find the 8.4% of 1.8 billion dollars and then subtract the result from 1 billion dollars.

We know 1.8 billion = 1,800,000,000 or 1.8 x 10^9

8.4% of 1.8 billion = 8.4/100 * (1.8 x 10^9)

= 151200000

So, Output expected in 2016 = 1.8 x 10^9 - 151200000

= 1648800000 or 1.6488 x 10 ^9

So, the output expected in 2016 is 1.6488 x 10 ^9 or 1.6488 billion.