The decomposition of NOBr is studied manometrically because the number of moles of gas changes; it cannot be studied colorimetri
cally because both NOBr and Br2 are reddish-brown. 2NOBr(g) → 2NO(g) + Br2(g) Use the data below to make the following determinations: (a) the average rate of decomposition of NOBr over the entire experiment. (b) the average rate of decomposition of NOBr between 2.00 and 4.00 seconds. Time (s) [NOBr] (mol/L) 0.00 0.0100 2.00 0.0071 4.00 0.0055 6.00 0.0045 8.00 0.0038 10.00 0.0033 The rates of decomposition of NOBr are
Atoms of the same element that differ in their numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. Many isotopes occur naturally. ... Different isotopes of an element generally have the same physical and chemical properties because they have the same numbers of protons and elec
The problem of energy exchange between waves and particles, which leads to energization of the latter, in an unstable plasma typical of the radiation belts. The ongoing Van Allen Probes space mission brought this problem among the most discussed in space physics. A free energy which is present in an unstable plasma provides the indispensable condition for energy transfer from lower energy particles to higher-energy particles via resonant wave-particle interaction. This process is studied in detail by the example of electron interactions with whistler mode wave packets originated from lightning-induced emission. We emphasize that in an unstable plasma, the energy source for electron energization is the energy of other particles, rather than the wave energy as is often assumed. The way by which the energy is transferred from lower energy to higher-energy particles includes two processes that operate concurrently, in the same space-time domain, or sequentially, in different space-time domains, in which a given wave packet is located. In the first process, one group of resonant particles gives the energy to the wave. The second process consists in wave absorption by another group of resonant particles, whose energy therefore increases. We argue that this mechanism represents an efficient means of electron energization in the radiation belts.
In the process of energy transfer between two groups of particles both processes operate simultaneously, and if the lower energy part of plasma distribution gives energy to the wave while the higher‐energy part absorbs the wave enrgy, then the wave‐mediated energy transfer from lower energy particles to higher‐energy ...