Bacterial populations can develop drug resistance in a short time by self –transferable plasmids. Few of them carries antibiotic resistance genes for metabolic functions. The overdose of antibiotics for people with a cold increases the killing of the healthy bacteria.
Bacteria can develop resistance in the following ways.
<u>Mutation:</u> By cell replication, some bacteria develop mutations that makes them resistant to antibiotics. Bacteria with the resistant mutation can survive against antibiotics. These resistant bacteria continue to multiply even when they are exposed to antibiotics
Horizontal Gene Transfer:</u> Antibiotic-resistant genetic material is transferred between different bacteria cells in three different ways: transformation, transduction or conjugation.
The process in which bacteria takes the genetic materials from the environment is transformation.
The introduction of foreign DNA/ RNA into the bacterial cell is transduction
In conjugation the genetic material is transferred from the donor bacteria to the recipient by direct contact.
The kingdom fungi includes the eukaryotic unicellular to multicellular organisms. These includes yeasts, moulds and mushrooms. These have cell walls, and nuclei. These are heterotrophs which means they are dependent upon other organisms for the food and nourishment requirements. These have filamentous structures called as hyphae which helps them to absorb the food from the dead and decaying matter present in the soil.