It emerged as the most powerful empire on the subcontinent in the 9th century and maintained its dominance until the 12th century. Like a dynasty of Tamil origin, its center of power was located in the south of the Indian peninsula. Its zenith occurred during the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries.
Much of area had been a part of New Spain and Mexico until the United States acquired the area through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 and the smaller Gadsden Purchase in 1854. ... While the region's boundaries are not officially defined, there have been attempts to do so