Thalidomide and l-dopa, shown below, are examples of pharmaceutical drugs that occur as enantiomers, or molecules that are mirror images of one another
-Enantiomers are chiral molecules that are mirror images of one another. Furthermore, the molecules are non-superimposable on one another. This means that the molecules cannot be placed on top of one another and give the same molecule. Chiral molecules with one or more stereocenters can be enantiomers.
Enantiomers have identical chemical and physical properties in an achiral environment. They rotate the direction of plane polarized light to equal, but opposite angles and interact with other chiral molecules differently.
According to Fick's law, the rate of diffusion of any substance across any barrier is<u> directly proportional to the surface area of the membrane or any layer exposed. and the concentration of the diffusing substance available, but the rate is inversely proportional to the diffusion distance available.</u>
Thus the rate at which oxygen will move across the phospholipid bilayer will depend on the concentration or amount per mole of the oxygen molecule hitting the phopholipid at a prticular time and how permeable the phospholipd layer is to oxygen molecules, but the rate of its movement across will be reduced as the distance between the phosphoslipid bilayer and the diffusing molecules increases.
Therefore, the concentration of oxygen should be maximised, the surface area of the phospholipid bilayer should also be maximized. the distances between the phopholipid and the vessel containing the diffusing oxygen molecules should be drastically reduced. With this Fick's law has been applied , and therefore maximum oxygen molecules can diffuse across.
The tissues are made of different types of cells. The organs are also made of different types of tissue. There is no need of same types of tissues to make organs. Thus, option (B) and (D) is correct answer.