Robert Merton identified two important concepts in society: functions and dysfunctions.
Functions are the positive consequences of a particular action. These can be manifest (consequences people observe or expect) or latent (not recognized of intended). On the other hand, dysfunctions are those consequences that are negative, and which are unintended or unrecognized.
In this case, the initial action is to reduce funding for education and training. However, this has a negative consequence which is unintended: the fact that workers do not have the skills needed for the job. Therefore, the behaviour is dysfunctional.
A covalent bond is formed between two non-metals that have similar electronegativities.
An <em>i</em><em>o</em><em>n</em><em>i</em><em>c</em><em> </em><em>b</em><em>o</em><em>n</em><em>d</em> is formed between a metal and a non-metal. Non-metals(-ve ion) are "stronger" than the metal(+ve ion) and can get electrons very easily from the metal. These two opposite ions attract each other and form the ionic bond.