Athens and Sparta were two powerful rivaling city-states (poleis) in Ancient Greece. In some ways, they were similar, but their values and lifestyles were different. For example, their form of government wasn't too different. An Assembly, whose members were chosen by the people, was present in both city-states. Sparta had two kings, while archons, who were elected every year, ruled Athens. In Sparta, the focus among the people was on war and obedience. Since childhood, boys would train to become warriors, while girls were supposed to become mothers of warriors. Athens was completely different. The focus was on education, art, and science. Boys could become warriors but didn't have to.