Hans Eysenck suggested that two traits are the most important traits of the Five-Factor Model. More recently, Jeffrey Gray has s
uggested that these two traits are important because they are related to fundamental reward and avoidance systems in the brain. Which two traits of the Five-Factor Model are Eysenck and Gray referring to, and how do they map onto the reward and avoidance systems?
Extroverts approach rewards while Neurotic individuals avoid punishment
Eysenck's theory of personality focused on two dimensions of higher-order traits, extraversion vs. introversion and emotional stability vs. neuroticism, or emotional instability. Extraverts are commonly known as being loud and outgoing while introverts are often thought of as quiet and reserved.
As someone who is male, my actions are that of a male and expected of a male. While we live in a gender equal world, there are still gender-roles that we need to fulfill. That means despite being gender-equal, many women still expect me to become a gentleman. And I do it not because I am compelled by gender expectations but because I believe it is the right thing to do. Abiding by what is good and proper has brought me several benefits including being promoted at work. My upbringing as a male person as well has shaped how I behave today. I was told to respect women and other people by my parents, hence that is what I do right now. When someone else, a man or a woman is in need of help, I try to help them the best way I can. But of course, it is not always smooth sailing. There are also hindrances, for example in job placements. There are jobs where only women are allowed. This puts me at a disadvantage because I cannot apply for those jobs, despite me being qualified for them. But either way, whatever happens, I think what is important is mutual respect. Whatever our gender orientations are, if we have respect for each other, then the world will be a better place. Our socials skills need not be defined by our gender roles. So being male, or female should not matter, we are all humans.
<u>Predictive validity:</u> In psychometrics, the term "predictive validity" is determined as the extent or degree to which a specific score on a particular test or scale tends to predicts the different scores on some of the criterion measures.
<u>Example:</u> Supervisor's different performance ratings.
<u>In the question above, the correct answer is "school grades".</u>